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WiMax, VoIP, and the Metropolitan Area Network
Commonly known as the new IEEE 802.16 standard WiMAXis committed to bringing last-mile wireless broadband Internet access, capable of carrying data-intensive applications such as VoIP and streaming video, not only to metropolitan area networks, but also to suburban and rural communities. WiMAX is seen as a disruptive technology designed to replace fixed-line DSL and coax technologies, and with its 802.16e revision, cellular networks as well.
Microwave AXcess Global Interoperability Operates on licensed and unlicensed frequencies using Non Line of Sight (NLOS) and Line of Sight technology to reach cities and towns over metro area networks wirelessly extend broadband coverage to In addition, wimax is one of the technologies that has the potential to bridge the digital divide due to its extensive capabilities and ease of implementation, allowing less developed areas and sparsely populated rural areas to deploy wired infrastructure. Connect in a much more cost-effective way than
Comparing WiMAX and WiFi
The prevalence of wireless LANs in the business community and the emergence of WiFi hotspots in public areas, airports, hotels, and cafes are crucial in providing mobility for both businessmen and consumers. WiFi technology is taking root in our society thanks to open standards led by the 802.11 committee and the WiFi Alliance. WiMAX plans to take WiFi one step further.
Although the two technologies may sound similar, they come from concepts designed for very different applications. WiFi is a short-range standard designed primarily as an extension of local area networks (LANs) to provide end-user mobility. It operates on unlicensed frequencies and has a range of approximately 100 meters, depending on obstacles. Typically, one access point is connected to a fixed-line network (wired LAN or DSL/cable broadband connection), and range can be extended by adding access points at appropriate distances.
WiMAX, on the other hand, is designed to act as a carrier network or wireless Internet service provider (WISP), providing broadband Internet access that rivals DSL and covers entire cities and regions. Coverage can reach 50 km under optimal conditions, but in practice, users with NLOS Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) can reach as much as 5 km with CPEs connected to external line-of-sight antennas. up to 15 km.
As an older, more established technology, 802.11 WiFi is used in mesh topologies to cover larger areas, such as university campuses and local governments, to connect police vehicle terminals to databases, for example. The new 802.16 WiMAX is suitable for larger deployments. In fact, it complements private WiFi networks by providing cheap and secure Internet access for data and voice applications.
WiMAX Standards: Fixed, Nomadic and Mobile
Developed by the IEEE, the 802.16 standard is intended for fixed wireless broadband networks operating in the 10 GHz to 66 GHz spectrum range. Initially, this range covered only licensed spectrum, and line-of-sight multipath techniques were addressed by adopting OFDM as a standard. Subsequent revisions added the 2 GHz to 11 GHz band to the spectrum and included support for non-line-of-sight and quality of service (QoS) techniques, prerequisites for time-sensitive applications such as voice and video.
The revision known as 802.16-2004(d) rolls up all previous revisions and adds a few. Most of these original issues dealt with the physical and media access control layers and produced a standard list of optional and mandatory elements for vendors to design their products.
The resulting fixed WiMAX standard features data rates up to 40 Mbps, support for half- and full-duplex transmission, improved QoS, and the incorporation of multiple polling techniques, ultimately reducing packet collisions and Reduce overhead.
The base stations will support several different topologies, including wired backhaul, microwave point-to-point connections, and the ability for WiMAX base stations to reserve and backhaul a portion of the bandwidth.
By design, 802.16d addresses the residential and small business market providing wireless broadband access at speeds comparable to DSL. The enterprise market can be served at T1/E1 data rates.
Although this version of WiMax is called fixed, it is actually nomadic. A user on an indoor private WiFi network may be seamlessly passed off to a public WiMAX network as they move outdoors, with the user’s hardware determining the best network available. Devices on WiMAX data networks include laptops, PDAs, and smartphones with onboard his WiMAX-enabled chips or PC cards, which utilize the spectrum for voice, data, video, and music transfers. .
Nomadic WiMAX offers limited mobility in that coverage areas are served by the same base station.
WiMAX Goes Mobile
The adoption of the 802.16e revision in late 2005 gave rise to the hype of mobile WiMAX, a technology designed to compete with cellular networks.
With leading support from manufacturers such as Intel, Motorola, Siemens and Nokia, mobile WiMAX is built on open standards and is claimed to be four times faster than cellular 3G technologies (EVDO, HSDPA). Significant cost savings can be realized for voice applications by making calls over the Internet via VoIP.
Similar to cellular networks, 802.16e provides fast and seamless handoffs between base stations with cell radii of approximately 3 miles. The standard was ratified in his late 2005, real applications began to emerge in 2007, and stronger development is expected throughout 2008.
This technology poses a major threat to the traditional telecommunications industry, so it’s no surprise that Sprint Nextel will deploy WiMAX instead of EVDO in its 4G network. Sprint has acquired much of his WiMAX spectrum and recently announced a partnership with Nokia to bring his WiMAX to four of his cities in Texas by mid-2008.
The 802.16 standard is a work in progress and is subject to change and revision. As standards committees work on the technology, the WiMAX Forum promotes interoperability between components through testing and provides WiMAX certification to vendors that adhere to the 802.16 standard, thereby helping the WiFi Alliance to support the 802.11 standard. We want to achieve what we have done.
Note that many WiMAX implementations at the time of this writing are proprietary and do not necessarily follow the IEEE or WiMAX Forum recommendations. Broadband wireless ISP Clearwire Communications, which has more than 200,000 subscribers in 375 cities, calls its service “his WiMAX-class solution utilizing next-generation non-line-of-sight wireless technology.” Other early adopters of pre-WiMAX technology have focused on evolving standards to provide wireless broadband access to the home consumer and small business markets and to ensure interoperability and backward compatibility of devices and applications. I am going with the flow.
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