What Is Three Of The Most-Played Musical Instrument In Africa What Instruments Are Found in a Samba Band? Brazilian Percussion Instruments

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What Instruments Are Found in a Samba Band? Brazilian Percussion Instruments

A samba band usually contains sordos, cases, rapinix, tambourines and shakers. They can also use timbes, chocalhos and agogos.

AGOGO (uh-goo-goo)

It is usually a double metal cowbell with a flexible handle. Both bells have different tuning. The agogo is held in one hand and strikes the stick with the other. Most experts hold the agogo with the hand holding the bell, not the handle – this gives the bells a softer tone, which is the right sound for the samba. It is considered one of the oldest instruments in the samba band; Before it was introduced into samba it was used to provide the structure of Bayao, Mercato, Capoeira and religious rituals of African origin. A newer form of agogo is a large heavy iron 4 bell model.

BERIMBAU (Bar-am-Buch)

The barimbau is a wooden or bamboo bow with a metal string, and a gourd used to write a voice. You strike the metal string with a wooden stick and move the berimbau away from the body and towards it to change the tone of the soundbox. The sound it produces is unique, and is often used for special effects. It is a very ancient instrument, in Brazil it is mainly used in Afro-Brazilian rhythms from the northeast, especially capoeira, but it has found a place in jazz and other modern music because of its unique sound. It is not commonly used in samba bands.

CAIXA DE GUERRA (cash-eh)

Samba drum. The caixa is a descendant of the European marching drum, but it has been adapted to be much lighter. The caixa is a metal cylinder with a nylon skin on both ends and a string trap across the top of the playing end. The best caixas are made of aluminum. Caixas can be of different widths and depths; The standard size caixa used in Rio Batrias is 12 inches wide by 15 or 20 cm deep.

CHOCALHO

It is a metal or wooden frame that carries many metal jingles. This is a very powerful samba shaker. It is a fundamental element in the flavor of a large samba percussion ensemble, and it also plays an important role in helping the caiques keep the beat. Described by The Times of London as “a cross between an abacus and a tambourine”

CUICA

The cuica is a friction drum. It has a metal cylindrical body with a leather skin at one end, and a stick secured to the center of the skin protruding back through the drum body. The koika is played by rubbing the stick with a damp cloth. It sounds like a series of moans – and is said to imitate the voice of a monkey, and was used in hunting Brazilian Indian tribes. Traditionally used in samba schools; It produces an exotic sound that changes the tone of the battery. A real cuica has a leather skin with a thick aluminum body and must be adjustable. Serious cubes are 12 inches deep and 8 to 10 inches wide; anything smaller is basically just a toy and won’t be heard in a samba band.

GANZA

A hollow closed cylindrical shaker, varying from pocket size to hand length, and single or double. The ganza is much quieter than the chocalo and is not used much in large Brazilian baterias because it cannot be heard. But it is still widely used in small groups and teaching. An instrument of traditional importance in Batria, where it formerly had the same function as the chocalho.

MARCACAO

A term referring to surdus, which are the large drums that indicate the rhythm.

Pandieiro (pan-der-o)

A small light instrument, like a tambourine, but with a different sound. The head is hit with great skill, using a combination of pats, slaps, rim shots and rolls. A skilled fandeiro player can reproduce almost anything a drum kit can do. Pandieiros can have wood, plastic or fiberglass frames and brass or metal junglers, and plastic or hide heads. In samba the pandeiro is used both for rhythmic backing and as a solo instrument. It is widely used in bands playing many different styles of Brazilian music, in samba and capoeira schools.

REPINIQUE

The repinique or repique is a lightweight samba kettle drum, with nylon skins on both ends. The best samba rappins are made of aluminum for both sound quality and lightness, although you can find rappins made of iron or even wood. In Rio Samba they play with one wooden stick, while the other hand taps the drum. A repinique should not have more than 8 single struts; Also, to dull the sound and not leave enough room to hit the drum without hitting the cymbals. 6 better lugs in Rio. In other styles of Brazilian music, the rapnik is played with a pair of flexible plastic ‘wifi’ sticks. The Harpinik was introduced in the Rio Olympics in the 1950s. His job is to complete the tambourines and support his surdo. It also serves as a solo and lead instrument, with its solo providing the right speed for the other instruments to enter.

REPIQUE DE MAO – This is a special hand patch specially developed for Pagoda. It has a metal body and nylon skin on one end only.

SURDO

The surdo is a large bass drum, which keeps the rhythm for the rest of the group. Sordo has heads at both ends. In Rio they use hidden heads. The best surdos for marching samba bands have aluminum bodies because they are light and sturdy. Sordo can also be found with wooden bodies (fragile) and iron bodies (heavy). The surdo is considered the heart of the battery, and is responsible for marking and maintaining the rhythm of all the other instruments. The First or Primeiro surdo hits hard on the beat, and the Second or Segundo hits the second part of the beat, responding to the primeiro.

tambourines

It is a small frame drum with a 6 inch nylon skin, and should be adjustable. Originally made in a square shape and with a leather head. This small drum is held in one hand and played with a special flexible stick (warte) and in samba it is used to emphasize the strongest parts of a melody, providing punctuation to the melody. Brailsin’s first tambourines were rectangular and covered with leather. There is a legend that they were once covered in cat skin, but as it is brittle and tears easily, the legend may not be true. Tambourines singular is spelled with an ‘m’, but the plural is tambourines.

TAN TAN – A long pointed drum with a skin or napa head at one end. Used to take the place of surdo in a small samba group or pagoda. Played sitting, resting on the player’s knees. The skin is damaged with one hand, while the body is treated with the other.

Tarol

The tarole is a thin thin samba drum, usually no more than 10cm deep. From the same family as the caixa da Guerra, it has a decisive influence on the rhythmic identity of a bateria. It is often used for playing on the shoulder; rather than being supported In a belt at waist level she is cradled in one arm, high at chest level.

Third SURDO

The third surdo is a smaller surdo. This is the cutting surdo, also known as Surdo Centrador, or Cutador, and it is used with creative freedom but remains responsible for the swing of the battery. It fills the spaces between the first and second surdo beats.

Timba – A conical drum made of fiberglass, metal or wood with a plastic head at one end – a marching drum. The adult size timba is usually 70 or 90cm deep – shorter people should use a 70cm timba. The tamba is played upright, using flexible plastic whip sticks or drumsticks, or it can also be played by hand. It is used in styles from northeastern Brazil, such as reggae samba. Although it is a traditional drum it was almost obsolete in Brazil until Carlinhos Braun reinvented it for his band Timbalada in the 1980s.

whistle

The traditional Brazilian samba whistle is a 3-tone whistle made of wood. The original ones are very loud and you can easily hear over 30 or 40 drummers. The whistle is used to draw the attention of the drummers and regulate the speed of the samba band. But a 3-note samba whistle can also be used as an instrument by itself.

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