Which Is A Very Important Element Of Early Twentieth-Century Music Multiple Intelligences and Its Importance in Education

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Multiple Intelligences and Its Importance in Education

Learning theories in general are derived from how theorists interpret human nature and how humans learn.

Among the learning theories proposed in the second half of the 20th century, I would like to highlight the theory of multiple intelligences developed by Howard Gardner. Initially proposed as a theory of human intelligence, that is, as a cognitive model, MI has attracted the attention of educators worldwide due to its description of cognitive competence in terms of a set of skills, talents or even intellectual abilities, which Gardner. called “intelligences”. Gardner’s intelligences are relatively autonomous, though not completely independent. The importance of MI for educators seems to be in their recognition that each child has a different set of different skills, or a spectrum of intelligences.

In reality, Gardner’s learning theory is an alternative view to traditional intelligence theory (Binet and Simon’s IQ). This is a pluralistic theory of intelligence. According to Gardner, the MI model used, among other things, knowledge that was not available at the time of Binnett and Simon (1908): cognitive science (the study of the mind) and neuroscience (the study of the brain). In MI, intelligence is understood as multiple skills. These categories (or intelligences) represent elements that can be found in all cultures, namely: music, words, logic, paintings, social interaction, physical expression, inner reflection and the appreciation of nature. In fact, MI theory has been used, with excellent results, in diverse educational environments, thus demonstrating how cultural contexts can shape educational practice. Furthermore, MI represents eight ways to learn content. The IM theory, therefore, does not attribute only language and logic as tools for learning. MI theory provides a kind of context in which educators can address any skill, topic, domain, or instructional goal, and develop it in at least eight ways to teach it. Used not only in the classroom, but also as a conceptual model in a science park, MIs are proving to be a way to ensure that learning happens and is fun.

Initially, the set of intelligences proposed by Gardner presented seven basic intelligences. In a later work, the author added an eighth intelligence (naturalist), leaving the discussion open on the possibility of adopting a ninth (spiritual) intelligence. To arrive at this model, Gardner reports that he studied a wide and unrelated group of sources: research prodigies, gifted people, brain-damaged patients, idiots, normal children, normal adults, experts in different fields of study, and individuals from different cultures. . The eight intelligences proposed by Gardner are defined as skills: 1) use language competently (linguistically); 2) logical thinking in mathematics and sciences (logic-mathematics); 3) to pay attention to the details of what is seen and visualize and manipulate objects in the (spatial) consciousness; 4) understand, create and appreciate music and musical concepts (musical); 5) use his body skillfully (physical-kinesthetic); 6) recognize subtle aspects of other people’s (interpersonal) behavior; 7) having an understanding of the self (intrapersonal); and 8) identifying patterns and differences in nature (naturalistic). As Gardner believes, intelligence is a human ability linked to specific world content (for example, musical sounds or spatial patterns). Gardner also points out that these different intellectual powers, or skills, each have their own historical development. For this very reason, they are valued differently by the different cultures of the world.

Finally, according to Gardner, certain fields or skills, such as the logical-mathematical one, which was studied in depth by J. Piaget, are universal. In short, Piaget explores the minds of children to glimpse what is unique and generic about intelligence. However, there are other areas that are limited to certain cultures. For example, the ability to read or create maps is important in some cultures, but minimally valued or even unknown in others.

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