You are searching about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us, today we will share with you article about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us is useful to you.
The Misuse and Overuse of English Articles by ESL and EFL Students
Many languages differ from English in terms of semantics, syntax and grammar. Although there are a variety of differences, this article explores article use, abuse, and acquisition. I predict that speakers of non-English languages lacking the article system (Korean, Russian, Polish, and Japanese) will demonstrate language transfer errors within the English article system, a/an, the, or zero, when learning to speak English. Studies show that non-native English speakers will make errors when speaking English if their native language lacks articles.
Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2003) tested the linguistic theory of L2 acquisition with reference to the use of articles. They predicted that Korean and Russian learners of English would overuse the article in specific and non-specific definite and indefinite contexts. In a 2004 study, Ekirt examined the acquisition and misuse of the English article system by Polish speakers learning English in ESL and EFL settings. Neal Snape, 2004, examined the use of articles by Japanese and Spanish English language learners and proposed that due to L2 acquisition processes, all English language learners will make systematic transfer errors regarding English articles.
In a 2003 analysis by Yunin, Ko Wexler, Russian and Korean language learners of English refer to their use of the English essay. The participants in this study were 50 learners of English in Russian aged 17-57, with an average age of 38, who had lived in the United States for an average of 3 years (3 years, 2 months). There were also 38 Korean English learners aged 17-38, with an average age of 28 who had lived in the US for an average of just under 2 years (1 year, 10 months). All of these participants were exposed to English in their home country at a young age or during adolescence, but were not fully exposed to it. until they arrived in the US during late adolescence or adulthood. There was also a control group that participated in this study. It was composed of seven adult English speakers. They performed as expected in all tasks.
Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2003) note that the data for this study were collected in the form of forced elicitation tasks and participants were asked to complete the written portion of the Michigan Test of L2 Proficiency, a 30-item multiple-choice test that grouped learners into ability level (beginner, intermediate, and advanced ). The researchers also note in the results section that there was another task that was not reported in this study. For the elicitation task, there were 56 short dialogues testing 14 context types in which participants had to choose between a, the and an empty article (–) for singular and some, and — for plural. Yunin’s study, Ko Wechsler shows examples of dialogue elicitation tasks on pages 250-252. Three types of context are designed to evoke specific infinitives in the singular. former-
In “Lost and Found”:
Clerk: Can I help you? Are you looking for something you lost?
Customer: Yes, I understand you have a lot of stuff here, but maybe you have what I need. You see, I’m looking for a green scarf. I think I lost it here last week.
Three types of context were used to raise singular infinitives:
in a clothing store:
Clerk: Can I help you?
Customer: Yes, please! I rummaged through every stall, without success. I’m looking for a warm hat. It’s getting pretty cold outside.
Both contexts were tested in the indefinite plural (specific and non-specific). former-
Phone call: (specific)
Jeweler: Hello, this is Robertson’s Jewellery. what can i do for you ma’am Looking for a piece of jewelry? Or are you interested in selling?
Customer: Yes, correct sale. I would like to sell you (some, you, –) beautiful necklaces. They are very valuable.
Phone call: (not specific)
Salesperson: Hello, Eric’s grocery deliveries. What can I do for you?
Customer: Well, I have a rather exotic order.
Salesman: Maybe we can help you.
Customer: I want to buy (some, you, –) green tomatoes. I make a special Mexican sauce.
Both context types were designed to elicit definite determiner phrases (DP) in plural and singular contexts. Examples:
Richard: I visited my friend Kelly yesterday. Kelly loves animals very much – she has two cats and one dog. Kelly was busy last night – she was studying for a test. So I helped her with her animals.
Marian: What did you do?
Richard: I took (the, -) dog for a walk.
definite in plural:
Rosalyn: My cousin started school yesterday. He took from notebook one and two
New books with him to school, and he was very excited. He was so proud to have his own things for school! But he came home really sad.
Jane: What made him so sad? Did he lose any of his stuff?
Rosalyn: Yes! He lost (some, the, –) books.
Because the results of this study were separated by ability level, the Michigan test results were given first. The L1-Korean group had 1 beginner, 12 intermediate, and 25 advanced English learners. The L1-Russian group contained 13 beginner, 15 intermediate and 22 advanced English learners. The results show that intermediate and advanced learners overused specific indefinite contexts. The results also showed that the use of M was higher with definites than with specific infinitives and was also higher with specific than nonspecific infinitives. The researchers also noted that article omission was higher with many DPs.
Overall, it was noted that L1-Korean students were above L1-Russian speakers in most categories. This performance difference was attributed to the fact that “the Korean L1 students were mostly international students who received intensive instruction in English, while the speakers came from a variety of backgrounds” (Yoonin, Ko Wexler, 2003).
In a similar study conducted by Monika Ekirt in 2004, the acquisition of the English article system by Polish speakers was investigated in ESL and EFL settings. The participants in this study included 10 Polish ESL learners, 10 Polish EFL learners and 5 native English speakers who served as the control group. All Polish students ranged in age from early 20s to late 30s, took a grammar placement test and were divided into beginner, intermediate and advanced ability levels. ESL students enrolled in an intensive English language course at Columbia University with an average length of stay in America of one year. The EFL students were enrolled at the University of Warsaw, while English was not their major and they had not been outside of Poland for more than one month and had not used English outside of the classroom.
The task given to the students was 42 sentences containing 75 obligatory uses deleted by a/an, the, 0. The participants were asked to read the sentences, insert a/an, the, zero in the appropriate place. Blanks were not inserted into the sentences because the researcher felt that if blanks were inserted, participants would either fill in any blanks with a or generate unreliable data. Each student was given 20 minutes to complete the task and they were asked not to use dictionaries. An analysis of overuse of a/an, the, zero was conducted. Unfortunately, examples of sentences used for this task were not reported in the report.
The results of this study showed that learners of all ability levels overused the null article. A direct relationship between ability level and overuse of the null article was demonstrated, while beginners showed the most overuse, intermediates less, and advanced learners made the fewest zero overuse errors. The misuse results in article a were the same for skill level versus misuse. In contrast, the article was not overused by beginners. The level of overuse was the highest among middle schoolers.
It was noted by Ekiert (2004) that a striking finding of this study was that EFL learners outperformed their ESL counterparts. This provides evidence that the acquisition of the English article system does not rely solely on exposure. One reason given for this performance difference is that all of the EFL students were enrolled in a college program, while the ESL students differed in educational background and simply enrolled in a college-level ESL class for one semester.
Another study was conducted by Neil Snape in 2004 which examined the use of the article by Japanese and Spanish English language learners. This study suggests that although Spanish speakers do use an article system, due to L2 acquisition processes, Spanish speakers of English will make systematic transfer errors about English articles similar to Japanese learners. He also predicted that L2 learners would overuse the definite article e.
The participants in this study were three Japanese-speaking English learners, three Spanish-speaking English learners and two native English speakers acting as the control group. All participants were aged 23-40, with an average age of 28. All English language learners had studied in the UK for six months and had a TOEFL score of 575 or higher. The two groups of learners were separated into ability levels based on the placement test scores.
The first task in this experiment was an oral production task and involved the participants listening to 13 short stories. The stories were presented using PowerPoint slides and instructions were given to the students on each slide to help them recall the story. They listened to the story twice and remembered it using the prompts. Each recall was digitally recorded, transcribed and checked for accuracy. Former story:
‘I thought the train was leaving’ said the young man. ‘They can’t find a driver.’ replied the old woman’s daughter.
The results showed that participants had difficulty using the correct article. Former results: ‘They can’t find the driver’.
The results of this study also show that accuracy in article use correlates directly with learners’ performance on the placement test, while beginners scored the lowest on correct article use, while advanced students scored the highest.
The second task in this study was a gap-filling test in which participants had to read a dialogue and fill in the blanks with the correct article, a/an, the, or zero. former-
A: Come on! We have been in this store for hours.
B: I can’t decide. Which shirt do you like the most?
C: I prefer ____ shirt with stripes.
Results from this task revealed that Japanese English learners and Spanish English learners did not overuse the definite article e. This study showed that all English language learners performed better in the written passage than in the verbal language by making fewer errors in the essay. In the oral portion of the task, advanced learners were more accurate in their article use, but errors of omission were still persistent (Snape, 2004).
In all studies it has been shown that speakers of languages other than English who lack the article system, use of a/an, the, or zero have demonstrated language transfer errors when learning to speak English. It also showed that most of the errors were omissions, as their native languages do not have an article system. While this is true for Korean, Russian, Polish, and Japanese English speakers, it is not true for Spanish speakers. This leads to an interpretation of Snape’s 2004 data and results regarding language acquisition. Maybe it’s not a matter of not having a second language essay set, it’s directly related to acquiring a second language whereas English essays aren’t acquired until a later stage.
Research shows that ESL essays are so difficult to learn and teach to ESL and EFL students because of the size and complexity of the rules and exceptions regarding the use of essays (Norris, 1992). Some teaching techniques that can be useful for ESL and EFL teachers include providing extended descriptions, meaningful learning experiences, and using visual aids and pictures.
Video about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
You can see more content about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us on our youtube channel: Click Here
Question about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
If you have any questions about Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us, please let us know, all your questions or suggestions will help us improve in the following articles!
The article Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us was compiled by me and my team from many sources. If you find the article Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us helpful to you, please support the team Like or Share!
Rate Articles Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
Rate: 4-5 stars
Search keywords Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
way Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
tutorial Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us
Who Is The 1St-Highest-Certified Music Artist In The Us free
#Misuse #Overuse #English #Articles #ESL #EFL #Students